A Municipal Corporation, City Corporation, Mahanagar Palika, Mahanagar Nigam or Nagar Nigam is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million. The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health care, educational institution, housing, transport etc. by collecting property tax and fixed grant from the State Government.
The area administered by a Municipal Corporation is divided into territorial constituencies known as wards. A Municipal Corporation is made up of a Wards Committee. Each ward has one seat in the Wards Committee. Members are elected to the Wards Committee on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years. These members are known as Councillors or Corporators. Some seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and women.
A State can choose to constitute additional Committees to carry functions of urban local governance, in addition to the Wards Committees. (There are provisions for the inclusion of people other than Councillors to be included in the Wards Committee.)
The Mayor is the head of the Municipal Corporation, but the role is largely ceremonial as executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner. As per the amended Municipal Corporation Act of 1888, a Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Mayor. The tenure of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor is two and a half years.
Executive Officers monitor the implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the corporation with the coordination of Mayor and Councilors.
- extracted from Municipal Corporations, India as on 31st December 2017